Six Categories

6: Style or Form

The sixth category, style or form, is crucial to any analysis of literature. This category includes a wide range — imagery, sound, symbolism, irony, metaphor, conceit, tragedy, comedy, poetry, prose, epic, sonnet, ode, novel, novella, short story, play, screenplay, quest, journey, dialogue, tone, internal monologue, dramatic monologue, parody, flashbacks, catalogues, motifs, leitmotifs, etc.

This category is wide-ranging, but for our purposes can be thought of as form rather than content. For example, a character may be noble yet end up in dire straits, and you may examine his character development (3) from power to ruin in terms of psychology. You could look at the content of his personality, analyzing how it works in relation to space (1), time (2), other people (4), and issues (5). Yet if you were to see his character development in terms of form, you could see it in terms of tragedy (6), which is a pre-determined or conventional form in which a character falls from power or grace. Or, you could analyze the way the author uses dialogue, metaphor, irony, tone, or any number of literary strategies or devices (6) to explore his character development more deeply.

When looking at style and form, there's often overlap with setting (1) when a story is structured along the lines of a journey, especially the genre of the epic journey (6), or when a particular setting recurs. There's often overlap with time (2) when analyzing plot or when looking at such things as flashbacks or foreshadowings (6). Again, decide what your focus is and don’t worry if on occasion you overlap with another category.

Note that mood is difficult to tie down to only one of the six categories. For instance, if mood's created by setting (let’s say a graveyard at midnight), it's a function of space (1) and time (2). If it's created by the sound of words and the implication of images (as in gloom and a tooth dripping with blood) then it's a function of style — in this case onomatopoeia and horror imagery (6).

Example: Mood & The Raven

In depicting Poe’s raven, Doré and Manet use different drawing styles to create two very different moods. Doré highlights the raven’s association with cosmic Death and obscure nefarious forces, while Manet highlights the raven’s disruption of an ordered Modern world. Doré supplies a backdrop of dark, nebulous, receding cosmic space. The allegorical and frightening figure of Death dominates the world, which is shrouded in clouds and mists, which seem to drift off into the dark cosmos. This creates a mood that’s sombre and perhaps hopeless. Manet’s sketch on the other hand is more optimistic. The straight edges of the window suggesting order, over which the man seems to be master: he can open or close the window at will. The world outside may be one of grim factories and the bird may ultimately bring despair, but for now the man is in control of the situation. Manet creates a more hopeful mood, or at the least he creates a tension between what the bird represents and how the man may react to it.

Illustration 11 of Edgar Allan Poe's Raven: "Dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before," by Gustave Doré (1832-83); Illustration by Édouard Manet (1875) for a French translation by Stéphane Mallarmé of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven." From Wikimedia Commons.

Illustration 11 of Edgar Allan Poe's Raven: "Dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before," by Gustave Doré (1832-83); Illustration by Édouard Manet (1875) for a French translation by Stéphane Mallarmé of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven." From Wikimedia Commons.

Two takes on Poe’s poem, “The Raven” — by Gustave Doré and Manet.

Two takes on Poe’s poem, “The Raven” — by Gustave Doré and Manet.

From Image to Conceit

The following section looks at imagery, symbolism and metaphor, and then illustrates how metaphor can be extended into a conceit

Image and imagery. An image is a visual impression — as in E.J. Pratt’s seagull “etched upon the horizon” (from his poem, “Seagulls”). Here we see the seagull against the sky in our mind. The image is one of a bird in flight, a small and sharp living thing against a wide open space.  

Symbol and symbolism. An image can remain a simple description, or it can be developed into a symbol. For example, a dove could simply be a bird a character sees on a path, next to a blue jay, and this may interest the character because he is an ornithologist. Or, the dove could be seen next to a hawk, and come to represent peace (as opposed to aggression), as in ‘hawks and doves.’ 

Example: Symbolism & the Apple

In the still life below, the apples are a food item, yet in the relief beside it the fruit symbolizes worldly knowledge, sin, and the fall from the Garden of Eden. The fruit’s also associated with other symbols — such as the fig leaf and the snake — to create a complex world of symbolism.

Still Life with Game Fowl, Vegetables and Fruits , 1602, by Juan Sánchez Cotán. In the Hernani Collection, Prado Museum, Madrid (Wikimedia Commons).

Still Life with Game Fowl, Vegetables and Fruits, 1602, by Juan Sánchez Cotán. In the Hernani Collection, Prado Museum, Madrid (Wikimedia Commons).

“The temptation of Adam & Eve by the devil. Pedestal of the statue of Madonna with Child, western portal (of the Virgin), of Notre-Dame de Paris, France.” Photo by Jebulon (Wikimedia Commons).

“The temptation of Adam & Eve by the devil. Pedestal of the statue of Madonna with Child, western portal (of the Virgin), of Notre-Dame de Paris, France.” Photo by Jebulon (Wikimedia Commons).

Generally, symbols have either a personal meaning (the seagull may symbolize freedom and beauty to E.J. Pratt) or a public meaning (the dove symbolizes peace to most people). In general, a symbol is an object, not a person. Avoid treating characters as symbols; rather, treat them as embodiments or representatives of certain types, classes, or ideas. 

Metaphor. While a simile compares two things explicitly (“She is like a cat”), a metaphor compares them implicitly (“She is a fox”). Here's another way to think about the difference: similes are honest because they admit that a comparison's occurring, while a metaphor's a type of lie because it doesn't admit to a being a comparison; rather, it equates two things that aren't the same. 

Example: Metaphor & the Birds

In “Seagulls” by E.J. Pratt, the poet refuses in the first stanza to see the bird in terms of anything that it isn’t, yet in the second stanza he uses the metaphor of a wild orchid to suggest its freedom. By contrast, Poe’s raven is overloaded with meanings and symbolism from the moment it steps into the poet’s room in stanza 7 (the poems has 18 stanzas). In the final stanza the poet says that “his eyes have all the seeming of a demon’s that is dreaming,” and throughout the poem we’re given all sorts of hints as to its nefarious and uncompromising nature. Pallas is the Greek goddess Pallas Athena, whose bust symbolizes the bird’s brutal wisdom; Plutonian shore refers to Pluto, the god of the Underworld, and hence the death the poet can’t come to terms with. Because the poet is mourning a loved one who he’ll see “Nevermore,” the raven appears to symbolize death in all its inexorable and unforgiving finality

seagull and raven.jpeg

Conceit. A conceit extends or continues a metaphor, taking elements of it and exploring them in new ways. A metaphysical conceit links two vastly different things in extended and unexpected ways. The term often refers to the poetry of early 17th C. poets such as John Donne.

In the following scene from Friends — from “The One with the Sonogram at the End,” S1 E2, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qexA_iXD3f0 — the metaphor of the opening act is extended far beyond its original comparison. Try to identify where the simile turns into a metaphor, and the metaphor into a conceit.

Monica: What you guys don’t understand is, for us, kissing is as important as any part of it.

Joey: Yeah, right!....... Y’serious?

Phoebe: Oh, yeah!

Rachel: Everything you need to know is in that first kiss.

Monica: Absolutely.

Chandler: Yeah, I think for us, kissing is pretty much like an opening act, y’know? I mean it’s like the stand-up comedian you have to sit through before Pink Floyd comes out.

Ross: Yeah, and-and it’s not that we don’t like the comedian, it’s that-that... that’s not why we bought the ticket.

Chandler: The problem is, though, after the concert’s over, no matter how great the show was, you girls are always looking for the comedian again, y’know? I mean, we’re in the car, we’re fighting traffic... basically just trying to stay awake.

Rachel: Yeah, well, word of advice: Bring back the comedian. Otherwise next time you’re gonna find yourself sitting at home, listening to that album alone.

Joey: (pause)... Are we still talking about sex?

 

Other Literary Terms 

Alliteration refers to repetition of consonants, as in pretty pennies.

Allusion is a reference or quote that a writer assumes a reader will recognize.

Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds, as in eels leaping eagerly.

Enjambment refers to a line that has no end punctuation but instead flows into the next line.

Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement.

Genre refers to the type of work — such as play, film, novel, poem, short story, epic, lyric, sonnet, ode, elegy, satire, narrative, comedy, tragedy, farce, etc.

Irony occurs when words and meaning are at odds, or when expectations are contradicted. For instance, if we expect the psychopathic serial killer to be punished, yet she is rewarded, then the situation is ironic. Dramatic irony occurs when the expectation or understanding of a character (or group of characters) is contradicted by the expectation or understanding of the reader or audience. 

Metonymy and synecdoche are words you don't need to know, yet they can be helpful. In metonymy, one thing stands for something else that is closely related — as in the pulpit standing for sermons or preachers. In synecdoche, a part stands for the whole. For instance, lending a hand stands for making your body and mind available in order to help someone.

Ode: a poem that praises a particular thing or person. Highly lyrical, an ode often praises nature in both intellectual and emotional ways.

Example: Keats’ Ode

Keat’s “Ode on a Grecian Urn” is one of the most famous English odes, at the end of which Keats asserts that “Beauty is truth, truth, beauty.” Below I’ve included the first two stanzas (out of four), which celebrate the durability of art and the ecstasy of desire. Keats starts by addressing the urn itself, calling it a “bride of quietness” because it has no voice, and a “Sylvan historian” because it nevertheless allows us to see into the past (history) and into the beauty of nature, represented by the woods (the sylvan dales of Arcady in Greece).

Thou still unravish’d bride of quietness 
  Thou foster-child of Silence and slow Time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express 
  A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape 
  Of deities or mortals, or of both,
    In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
  What men or gods are these? what maidens loth? 
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
   What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
 
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard  
  Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear’d, 
  Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave 
  Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
    Bold lover, never, never canst thou kiss, 
Though winning near the goal -- yet, do not grieve;
  She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, 
    For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!
IMG_8425.jpg
IMG_8420.jpg

Crater with Bacchic Scenes (c. 1st C. A.D) portraying “a Dionysiac train with satyrs and menads overwhelmed by the rhythm of the orgiastic dances.” From the Capitoline Museum in Rome (photos RYC). Keats wrote on a tracing of the more subdued Sosibios vase from the Louvre.

Onomatopoeia is when the name of a thing or action resembles that thing or action — as in the words eerie, buzzing, or mooing.

Example: Onomatopoeia in Poe’s “Ulalume”

The skies they were ashen and sober;
The leaves they were crisped and sere—
The leaves they were withering and sere;
It was night in the lonesome October
Of my most immemorial year:
It was hard by the dim lake of Auber,
In the misty mid region of Weir—
It was down by the dank tarn of Auber,
In the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir.

In the first stanza of this nine-stanza poem, Poe appears to merely set a scene, yet the words are so evocative of the things they describe that the scene takes on an almost surreal quality. The leaves are not just crisp, but crisped, which puts them in the past, makes them fallen, and aligns them with the October setting. Crisped also requires a p-d pronunciation in addition to the sharp sound of crisp. One might even say the sound of crisp is itself crisp — dry, brisk, terse. The suggestion of winter is emphasized by the use of sere, which is repeated and which is a short word that nevertheless lingers, just as the empty barren Winter will contain little life yet will stretch on for months. Sere also rhymes with Weir, which again is repeated and is brief yet pronounced with a linger, emphasized by the use of alliteration in “woodland of Weir.” Alliteration also highlights the starkness of the landscape in the monosyllabic “down by the dark tarn,” which highlights the downward and colourless direction the poet’s pushing his reader emotionally. Finally, once we’re down in this dark, stark place, Poe suggests that it’s “ghoul-haunted,” lending a supernatural element of horror or tension, which is emphasized by the irregular gh and ou spelling, and by the creepy sound of ghoul.

Paradox is an idea that is true but seems to contain a contradiction.  

Persona or speaker: the "I" in the poem; a fictional character who is distinct from the poet. The persona may or may not be similar to the poet. 

Personification occurs when you give human characteristics to non-human things or ideas.

Refrain: repeated word or group of words; similar to a chorus in a song.  

Sonnet: a fourteen-line poem. Two famous English forms are the Spenserian (abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee) and the Shakespearean (abab cdcd efef gg). The Spenserian form is very integrated, while the Shakespearean form groups ideas into three quatrains, followed by a twist or emphasis in the final couplet. The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet has an octave (8 interconnected lines) followed by a sextet (six interconnected lines), as in abba abba cde cde (or cdc dcd).

Stanza form is determined by the number of lines that are grouped together within a larger poem.

- A couplet has two lines grouped together, a tercet has three, a quatrain has four.

- The Spenserian stanza is nine lines, following the ab ab bc bc c pattern.

- Ottava rima has eight lines, follows the rhyme scheme abababcc, and is often used for long narratives, epics and mock epics.

Example: Ottava Rima in Byron’ Don Juan

Byron uses ottava rima throughout his very long mock-epic Don Juan (1819-24). Sometimes the final rhyme creates humour and at other times it underscores a serious point. In the following stanza from Canto 9, Byron begins with the question asked by the French skeptic Montaigne — “What do I know?” — and concludes with the paradoxical suggestion that doubt is such a fundamental human condition that it’s more akin to certainty than to doubt.

"Que scais-je?" was the motto of Montaigne, 
     As also of the first academicians: 
That all is dubious which man may attain, 
     Was one of their most favourite positions. 
There's no such thing as certainty, that's plain 
     As any of Mortality's conditions; 
So little do we know what we're about in 
This world, I doubt if doubt itself be doubting. 

——

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Categories 1 - 2-5 - 6

Table of Contents for English 1114

Schedule

Readings: Wk. 2-4 5-6 8-10 11-13